This mythology includes the claims that black people -- as members of the tribe of Shabazz -- were the original human race and came to the Earth 66 trillion years ago. White people were the result of an experiment performed by the deranged black scientist Yakub 6, years ago. Elijah Muhammad assumes leadership of the Nation and supplements the mythology of Farad with a practical strategy for improving the lives of black people in the U. He quickly becomes Elijah Muhammad's principal spokesperson. He later becomes known as Louis Farrakhan. He moves towards orthodox Islam and makes a pilgrimage to Mecca.
In the U. Farrakhan succeeds him as minister of Harlem temple. Malcolm X is assassinated, and three Nation followers are convicted of his murder.
- The Gathering Darkness (The Fourth Awakening Series);
- Nation of Islam (– ) – BlackPast!
- Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam;
- Sweet Dreams.
Believing his true lineage to be lost when his ancestors were forced into slavery, he took the last name of a variable: X. Wallace Fard founded the Nation of Islam in the s. Christianity was the white man's religion, declared Fard. It was forced on African Americans during the slave experience. Islam was closer to African roots and identity. Members of the Nation of Islam read the Koran, worship Allah as their God, and accept Mohammed as their chief prophet.
Mixed with the religious tenets of Islam were black pride and black nationalism. The followers of Fard became known as Black Muslims. When Fard mysteriously disappeared, Elijah Muhammad became the leader of the movement. The Nation of Islam attracted many followers, especially in prisons, where lost African Americans most looked for guidance.
They preached adherence to a strict moral code and reliance on other African Americans. Integration was not a goal. Rather, the Nation of Islam wanted blacks to set up their own schools, churches, and support networks. When Malcolm X made his personal conversion, Elijah Muhammad soon recognized his talents and made him a leading spokesperson for the Black Muslims. The goal has always been the same, with the approaches to it as different as mine and Dr. Martin Luther King's non-violent marching, that dramatizes the brutality and the evil of the white man against defenseless blacks.
And in the racial climate of this country today, it is anybody's guess which of the "extremes" in approach to the black man's problems might personally meet a fatal catastrophe first — "non-violent" Dr. King, or so-called '"violent" me. As Martin Luther King preached his gospel of peaceful change and integration in the late s and early s, Malcolm X delivered a different message: whites were not to be trusted. He called on African Americans to be proud of their heritage and to set up strong communities without the help of white Americans. He promoted the establishment of a separate state for African Americans in which they could rely on themselves to provide solutions to their own problems.
Violence was not the only answer, but violence was justified in self-defense. Blacks should achieve what was rightfully theirs "by any means necessary. Malcolm X electrified urban audiences with his eloquent prose and inspirational style. In , he split with the Nation of Islam; in , he made the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Later that year, he showed signs of softening his stand on violence and even met with Martin Luther King Jr. What direction he might have ultimately taken is lost to a history that can never be written. Report broken link. American History 1. The Iroquois Tribes 2. The House of Burgesses 3. Witchcraft in Salem 4. The Ideas of Benjamin Franklin 5. Life in the Plantation South 6.
A New African-American Culture 7. The Treaty of Paris and Its Impact 9.
The Intolerable Acts The Declaration of Independence Yorktown and the Treaty of Paris Reactionary Black and Jewish racists have been successful in driving a wedge between these two potentially radical sections of the US proletariat. What do we do with Coleman? At this point, no physical harm. One day soon, we will punish you with death.
You say when is that? In sufficient time, we will come to power right inside this country This is a fitting punishment for dogs quoted in White Jr. The die is set, and Malcolm shall not escape Using selective texts it blames,. In its simplistic overview, anybody who had anything to do with Atlantic maritime commerce or New World colonization was either a Jew or a conversos Leinweber The book fails to point out the racism that drove so many Jews to engage in usury or commerce or the inconvenient fact that during the Medieval Era, Jews themselves were often captured and sold into slavery.
And Henry Louis Gates Jr. Everybody always talks about Hitler exterminating six million Jews They went there, in Germany, the way they do everywhere they go, and they supplanted, they usurped, they turned around Germany and a German, in his own country, would have to go to a Jew to get money.
We kill the women, we kill the children. We kill the babies. Why kill the babies? Because they gonna grow up one day to oppress our babies Why kill the women? They lay on their back and reinforcement roll out between their legs quoted in White Jr. According to White Jr. Calling themselves the Death Angeles they managed to decapitate fifteen victims and permanently injure many more before capture. The court proceedings exposed that the local minister of Islam had hired attorneys for the convicted men. But there was a time when he was less coy. At a rally for Angela Davis, he asserted:.
Black supremacy was supposed to be something evil. Supremacy means to be top, to be the Supreme Ruler. Somebody has to be supreme, white folks. How would you know? You never lived under black Rule. Why is America unable and unwilling to deal with Farrakhan? Because he thinks exactly as America does. America is unable to deal with Farrakhan because he is an orthodox Western thinker. To deal with Farrakhan, America would have to deal with itself. If our thesis that the nation of Islam combines four related tendencies, namely black Nationalism, religious beliefs, cult-worship and gang activity is correct, then the success of the Nation should be seen in the context of similar North American movements.
In relationship to AIDS, in line with a whole range of religious reactionaries, Farrakhan welcomes the suffering caused to people as a message from God:. I consider [homosexuality] a problem. And AIDS is making some people who are promiscuous adopt another extreme posture; they are becoming celibate. So fear is causing people to reassess all kinds of relationships that they are having. I think in the end it will turn out to be something good Independent Black Leadership in America, p. How did they get AIDS? Norm R. Allen, Jr. Any woman who advocates equality between the sexes is accused of being a feminist, or worse.
Women are expected to submit to men, who supposedly need such submission to restore their long-lost manhood. Thus attacks on gays and women are part of the same patriarchal strategy of dominance. These were not mere off-the-cuff statements. They constituted practice. Men dominated the leadership of the organization. At this stage a brief trawl through the murky waters of nationalistic pacts may prove instructive in predicting future trends.
The NOI was merely following this trend when they held a meeting in with the American Nazi Party ostensibly to discuss partitioning the United States between blacks and whites. Malcolm X later admitted that he was ashamed of having been a part of this alliance ibid. Moreover, a Ku Klux Klan lawyer by the name of James Venable defended members of the Nation who became entangled with the law in Louisiana.
By the early s, the Nation of Islam had come to the attention of British Nazis. Metzger praised the NOI From inside prison, James Carr understood this cosy alliance of scoundrels with precision:. The Nazis and the Muslims usually got along.
Nation of Islam | Southern Poverty Law Center
Their philosophies complimented each other; each group was certain of its own racial supremacy and neither was overly aggressive. They left each other alone; each group had its own turf to look out for. This one time, though, some Nazis happened to be standing nearby when a Muslim gave his rap about the white man being the incarnation of evil.
The Nazis were forced to move or risk lose face. The cops watched the whole, thing from the catwalk The imagination of the black slaves feasted on the subversive imagery contained in the Old Testament. Black Judaism acted as a bridgehead between the two. Noble Drew established ties with the Falasha, or Ethiopian Jews. And you do with me as is written, but remember that I have warned you that Allah will punish you. You are wicked deceivers of the American people. You are the synagogue of Satan, and you have wrapped your tentacles around the U. But I warn you in the name of Allah, you would be wise to leave me alone.
The Nation actively encourages blacks to become skilled electricians, engineers and farmers. Most significant of all, Booker T. He consciously set out to create a black middle class, setting up in the National Negro Business League as a black version of the Chamber of Commerce. This alliance with white capitalists was cemented through attacks on organized labor. He referred to proletarian opposition to capital as foolish and even criminal, meanwhile encouraging black workers to scab on striking white workers. Marable again:. When U. The state government of Alabama assisted the company by sending convicts to work in the mines.
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The conflict soon escalated: miners dynamited the homes of non-union strike-breakers; police and company security guards shot and physically assaulted UMW leaders; the governor of Alabama ordered the state militia to destroy the tent camps of black and white strikers; and hundreds of labor leaders were imprisoned Marable During all this, Washington sided with capitalism and discouraged black workers from striking, encouraging them instead to take this ideal opportunity to replace white workers.
In a description befitting Farrakhan, Oliver C. In a more recent incident, Al Sharpton used the Crown Height incident to stoke up anti-Jewish sentiment, organizing a march on a Jewish Sabbath originally destined to end provocatively at the headquarters of the Lubavitcher Jews. Crown Heights is an area in New York. Gavin Cato died after the Hasidic ambulance that arrived was instructed by police to take only the driver to Hospital. Three nights of rioting ensued in which a rabbinical student was stabbed. The prime function of the NOI is to prevent proletarian rebellion and to keep the US proletariat perennially divided along racial lines.
It does this through the institutionalisation of grievance and the spectacular projection of a tightly- scripted Armageddon scenario into an indefinitely postponed future. This role has gained added significance since the collapse of the U. Some are convicts, for at least three temples are behind prison walls. By a ghetto Wacquant does not mean merely a segregated district or an ethnic neighbourhood.
Into this cauldron of despair wades in the Nation of Islam with its army of professional recruiting agents as the last hope for many alienated individuals caught in the judicial labyrinth. The appeal of this arrangement for convicts trapped in a vicious circle cannot be overstated. Both Blues and Jazz are mostly secular as well as being associated on occasion with rival Muslim sects. The Ahmaddiya Movement,15 for instance, had many jazz musicians e. Art Blakey who developed their own unique blend of bebop and Arabic.
And many rhythm-and-blues, and pop musicians began their careers with the Ansarullah Nubian Islamic Hebrews. Nelson explains:. Ex-slaves had to cope with the intersection of racism and its side effects of poor housing, inadequate education and limited job opportunities. Many of the early communities of former slaves revolved around the sharecropping system, an arrangement that kept black men and women in debt to their white employers virtually all year round.
This explains his animosity towards them. Realizing the youthful appeal of gang members and rap groups, the Nation under the guidance of Minister Khallid Muhammad, began a concerted effort to recruit them. Rap groups such as Public Enemy, Niggas With Attitude, Ice Cube and Tupac Shakur took time out of their hectic money generating schedules to play at being revolutionaries. The situation created a new role for the NOI.
Such social engineering acted as useful propaganda ploys whilst making the membership evermore financially dependent on the goodwill of the leadership. Last but not least they were sound real-estate investments.
The leadership, however, never seem short of a dime or two. Farrakhan and his cronies always stay at the best hotels, travel, eat and dress in style. Like good businessmen they are forever on the lookout for opportunities to make a fast buck. The rank-and-file are indirectly used in these risky ventures as collateral. According to insiders, credit card scams, illegal NOI drug busts and fraud are widespread within the organization. One infamous example came to light when Minister Khallid Muhammad, a leading member of the Nation, was caught falsifying documents in order to obtain a bank loan to purchase property in Atlanta.
But it is true that Uncle Louis has given this strategy a more coherent direction, especially since the subtle shift in the class composition of the NOI virtually guarantees proletarian compliance with every decision of the leadership. The Nation of Islam was not deemed important enough to be invited to the original march on Washington. The Million-Man March could only be given the go-head from both the NOI and the US media when it was safe to assume that the proletariat had been marginalized. White Jr. As it turned out only the better off could pay the travel fair to Washington. It was, therefore, perfectly natural for black women not to be invited to the march.
The March aimed at recreating the power relationship that existed between black men and women when the latter was content with acting the role of the good housewife:. God gave woman to man, according to the Bible, as help mate, to meet your wants, your aspirations The Nation advocates the death penalty for adultery, incest, rape and interracial sex but realizes it needs real power before it can implement its program Gardell This is perhaps a reflection of the times.
When Farrakhan instructed the women to stay at home and mind the kitchen he was displaying an unusual amount of tolerance towards a despised gender, for in years gone by he was less reserved:. A woman is the prize possession of a man A man should protect his women even if he has to spank her Thankfully the article also captures a few moments of insights besides its reified quantitative survey. Segal writes:.
Nation of Islam
He lost so many of his listeners in a labyrinth of historical references and numerological predictions that barely a third remained till the end to join in the pledge of black men to abstain from violence, drugs, sexual and verbal abuse, in helping to restore their community. The numerological references seem to have been intended to fraternal lodge organizations present on the march:.
There, in the middle of this mall is the Washington Monument, feet high. But if we put a 1 in front of that feet, we get , the year that our first fathers landed on the shores of Jamestown, Virginia as slaves The march was endorsed by the big public service unions despite the fact that non-black male workers and black female workers were purposefully excluded from the spectacle Black History and the Class Struggle: In so doing, trade union bureaucracies once again displayed their anti-proletarian credentials for all to see.
According to Marable ibid. Neither Farrakhan nor Chavis [the co-organizer of the event] has significant influence within black labor unions or the Coalition of black Trade Unionists. Their core program was designed to appeal in the broadest possible terms to racial solidarity, while saying next to nothing about the growing class stratification within the black communities. Wallace D. Consequently, he has been vigorously courting the Nation of Islam. The aftermath of the Million-Man March was very disappointing for Farrakhan, although ironically many black organizations, even some that had opposed the march such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, gained fresh recruits.
He had intended to use it as a springboard for loftier aims but his appeal failed to find a resonance within the black proletariat. This was partly because most had come to show solidarity with each other and not to be sermonized by the Nation. Cut backs in the welfare system, high levels of unemployment and the mass incarcerations of several million African American young men were the real grievances that the March refused to address. Contrast the political achievements of this march with the march on Washington organized by A. Then the demand was,.
The vision of , angry blacks in Washington was enough to get President Roosevelt to issue an executive order establishing a committee on fair employment practice John Alan Moreover, the level of financial corruption was such as to alienate the participants and the lawsuits filed against the Nation by disgruntled African American businesses for non-payment of bills created additional problems. Some businessmen were intimated by the Fruits when they dared to ask for their money back but even Farrakhan understood this could only stall them temporarily. When a national black political rally was organized to follow up the Million-Man March only two thousand faithfuls turned up and the World Day Atonement celebration of the anniversary of the March attracted , New Yorkers.
Louis in was no more than a front for the Nation of Islam. Black Nationalism reached new depths of depravity during the summit when Lyndon La Rouche, a leading American fascist and defender of Apartheid in South Africa, was proudly introduced to the delegates as a major speaker. Marable describes how,. Throughout the country, perplexed African American activists asked themselves why a notorious white supremacist and fascist would be permitted to address a black political convention Marable Although far from a revolutionary, Tom refuses to punish a fellow slave despite strict orders from his master or to rat on escaped slaves.
He is whipped himself for this act of insubordination with fatal consequences. It is worth noting that two years later, in October , Afro-American women jammed the streets of Philadelphia in what became known as the Million Women March.