The proposed housing site is about half a mile from the location of the battle, fought between Jacobite and government forces in April , and is within the battlefield's conservation area. Campaigners have argued that the fighting took place in a much wider area than what is regarded as the battle's location. Protests against the planned housing development have been held at the battlefield and Highland Council's headquarters in Inverness. The original application for the 16 homes was submitted by another company, Inverness Properties.
It was refused planning permission by Highland Council. Inverness Properties appealed and planning permission was granted by a Scottish government-appointed planning official in Kirkwood Homes took over the project and recently submitted plans to change the design and layout of the homes. In January this year, the south planning applications committee deferred making a decision and asked the developer to redesign the houses in a way that "better reflected" the development's Highlands setting, and the Culloden Battlefield Conservation Area. Then in March, the same committee voted to approve an amended design and layout of the properties by five votes to three.
But after the meeting there were claims some councillors had made a mix-up in the way they voted. Conservative councillor Andrew Jarvie, who voted to refuse planning permission, secured a motion of amendment to have the decision reviewed. Mr Rae said it would be a "small development", but it would mean fibre broadband and "enhanced" roads and drainage for the local area.
Culloden Battlefield row homes granted permission 17 May Image copyright Google Image caption The battlefield is about half a mile from the site of the proposed housing development The design and layout for 16 homes opposed by a campaign set up to protect Culloden Battlefield have been given planning permission by councillors. Kirkwood Homes plans to build the properties at Viewhill, near Inverness. The Aberdeenshire-based company has welcomed the planning permission. More on this story. Councillors approve Culloden Battlefield row homes plan. Revised design of Culloden Battlefield row homes.
Other Editions 3. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about The Highland Clearances , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about The Highland Clearances. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 3. Rating details. Sort order. Apr 21, Jan-Maat added it Shelves: modern-history , british-isles , politics-and-polemic , 20th-century.
Well to start with I picked this up by mistake, that's not true, I picked it up quite deliberately, as a rule books don't slip into my hands accidentally, but there was a case of mistaken identity.
The weather decided to ignore Chaucer and instead of drought piercing showers smiled sunshine and warmth. Naturally this inclines the heart to a mild temper and cheerfulness, both frightful tendencies to be guarded against. Spotting this book I assumed it was Glencoe by the same author - the tale of a Well to start with I picked this up by mistake, that's not true, I picked it up quite deliberately, as a rule books don't slip into my hands accidentally, but there was a case of mistaken identity.
Spotting this book I assumed it was Glencoe by the same author - the tale of a grim winter massacre as a result of dubious governmental conspiracies from the days of William III, but instead it turned out to be this book the grim cheerless story of the deportation of the population of the Scottish highlands and forced migration to the colonies in favour of sheep and shooting lodges. It may be that I do simply need glasses. Then again I made such a mistake previously, buying The waning of the Middle Ages thinking it was The civilisation of the Renaissance in Italy.
Attention plainly a problem area. All of which is by the by. Prebble sees this book as following from his account of the battle of Culloden , his point I guess that the theme is the transformation and disappearance of the culture broadly considered of the Highlands. Though in this case we might see the issue as a subtler one, tugging economics and the changing performance of high social class rather than a battle lost and its repercussions.
I felt that Prebble struggles with the scope of his narrative here, Culloden is the better book, the flow is easy - introductory description of the two armies facing each other, then how they got there there ie recruitment and mustering, the fighting, the pursuit and post battle tidy up.
Here instead is a protracted series of events over a broad spread of the Highlands. Prebble doesn't seize the big themes, instead he moves round the region discussing the clearances lordship by lordship - this is what happened on the domain of the Duke of Sutherland, then this is what happened on the lands of the clan chief of where-ever which means that we move back and forwards in time and repeat similar stories - the lord decides to drive the people off the land and does so.
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There's also a tension in his story which Prebble never addresses, the human injustice of the evictions and clearances versus the flat statement that the Highlands were over populated. But to know if the Highlands were over populated then you have to have an idea of how many people the land could have supported and this is never evaluated.
And it is question of geography and law and technology none of which are addressed. Implicitly this is a clash of ideologies story. On the one side the men who had legal title to the land of the Highlands, these were the descendants of the clan chiefs, they leased out the land in tenancies for cash rents. Traditionally the aim was to support as many fighting men as possible, by the 18th century, the aristocrats wanted to participate in British aristocratic life which required money and they borrowed heavily to fund the lifestyle to which they aspired.
The wars against the French from gave them an economic boast as the price of cattle on the hoof increased to meet war demands, however the dreadful arrival of peace in pushed them to the brink financially, were upon enter from the south the villain of the story is the Cheviot sheep. A wonder sheep described as follows: countenance mild and pleasant This period saw a great interest in cross breeding animals and producing optimal strains for meat or wool or both.
By ending tenancies and letting the land to new tenants from the lowlands who brought in sheep, rents could be drastically increased, the sheep were good for wool and mutton, while the old tenants were subsistence producers of potatoes and oats or potatoes and barley raising a few head of cattle for market. Once these old tenants were served writs and then the roofs burnt off their houses to show the seriousness of intent then the ground was freed up so sheep may safely graze.
Roof burning was not a new measure but had a long history as a tenant management technique in the region. Harvest failures and potato blight seemed to vindicate the aristocratic contention that the ends justified the means, and tat the basic problem was over population rather than their desire to have a Gothic style big house, loose money at Monte Carlo, and have a fancy house in London. Public subscriptions helped to raise the money for transportation to Canada or occasionally Australia.
Two exceptions were Sutherland were for a while the Duke tried to drive the tenants off their potato patches and resettle them by the coast with the thought that they would transform into Herring fisher,s and the Hebrides where Kelp was harvested, burnt over peat and sold as fertiliser, the growth of this business sucked in migrants until the aristocrats learnt that the profits of sheep farming were better than fertiliser sales.
Here too there were land sales to speculators. In many regions there was the development of leisure hunting and the sale or rental of opportunities to shoot deer or grouse or even catch salmon. In short the land owners sought to maximise their income and the traditional highlanders either spoilt the view or blocked the grazing.
The conflict came with the traditional Burkean romantic-conservative ideology of the clans, the chief was the father, the clan members the children who he protected, while they watched their belonging being thrown out of their houses by the chief's factors backed up as necessary by constables or soldiers, this was also for Prebble a spiritual blow to the people - their world turned upside down, shameful and incomprehensible.
Since however the aristocrats were the political and legal elite and their tenants at this point of time early nineteenth century didn't have the vote there was no redress or appeal possible - though in a sign of the changing times emerging mass media meant that it was possible to raise funds from Britain and even from the colonies for famine relief and to pay for emigration. The irony was that this was happening at the very time that Walter Scott was inspiring the romantisation of the Highlands and of traditional Highland culture, this Prebbles regards as a shroud, and that shortbread you were enjoying from a tartan decorated tin - it was baked from ashes and blood.
Against the tourist friendly version of the highlands, Prebble's vision is of the highlands as a colonial zone, manpower one of the resources extracted extracted from a people in a landscape neither protected nor represented within the political unit as a whole. This strikes me as a more modern but equally romantic picture as Walter Scott's, if we think of the British Isles as a whole political representation was only regularly available to a minority of the population until arguably and legal protections were only universally affordable between perhaps until some point during the 'reforms' to legal aid of the s.
True the highlanders were ripe for exploitation, but so was almost everyone else.
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That grains were exported from the region during famine times a particularly egregious demonstration of the clash of ideologies paternalism versus a laissez-faire free market. Well it is a lively narration and I think ground breaking in bringing the story to a modern audience in Britain and the Scots diaspora.
Indeed it is only recently that the law was changed in Scotland allowing communities to buy the land they hold as tenants from their owners, some of the issues discussed in Prebble's account remained live ones through the twentieth century even if the habit of armed soldiers throwing your best crockery out through the front door did come to an end. However the story was weakened for me because there was no sense of the numbers as a whole - some hundreds emigrating ship by ship, I had no sense of how the population was changing overall.
Nor of how far this was a cultural disaster, he stresses that the population pre-clearance was Gaelic speaking while it isn't now. The Irish potato blight and famine an obvious point of comparison as a coming together of tenure, land ownership, monoculture and a division of interests between the broad mass of population and a small elite responsible for the administration and legal system but it is not developed, famine was widespread in Europe still in the nineteenth century but Prebble doesn't compare to explain why the Scottish situation developed towards mass transportation of peoples overseas.
Still a grim tale, well told. View all 7 comments. There is something wrong in the British education system if a person can reach my age and have virtually no knowledge of this whole affair, that lasted over a hundred years and involved the removal of poor people from the Highlands of Scotland. It isn't told as part of the working class struggle, nor as the progress of the industrial revolution - it seems to have been kept secret from our history.
So this book was a great revelation to me, I'm afraid to say. What was most disturbing was the cros There is something wrong in the British education system if a person can reach my age and have virtually no knowledge of this whole affair, that lasted over a hundred years and involved the removal of poor people from the Highlands of Scotland. What was most disturbing was the cross-references to slavery, and how people were deported from the UK in worse conditions than slave ships.
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- Show Notes: The Jacobite Rising of 1745.
Harriet Beacher Stowe visited, and saw nothing of the hardships, although hardship is hardly a sufficient word to describe conditions. And Quakers, apparently, were blind to this long-lasting injustice. And nothing much gets better, as the poor of the twenty first century are priced out of London.
What more could one say? I'm awaiting the arrival of Prebble's other books on this part of history. Oct 28, Brian rated it it was amazing. If you are in a really cheerful mood and want to feel depressed, this is just the book for you. After the rebellion, the Highland chiefs, due to the way society had changed, no longer needed to be able to raise large numbers of fighting men.
They figured out that by running sheep on their land they could make a lot more money than by accepting the relatively low rents paid by their tenants. So guess what? The tenants had to go. Some were forced to the coasts, to take up fishing - of which th If you are in a really cheerful mood and want to feel depressed, this is just the book for you.
Some were forced to the coasts, to take up fishing - of which they had no experience - while others were 'encouraged' to emigrate to Canada or Australia, usually in conditions that were not far off those of slave ships. The evictions were ruthless, and not even the helpless or the old were spared. The inhumanity is almost indescribable. Of course then, as now, there was the general attitude that a man or woman could do whatever he or she wanted with his property, irrespective of the broader implications for society.
Then, as now, there was a general attitude that if people were poor it was through their own idleness and wickedness, not because their means of livelihood had been taken away from them. Have we really progressed? Amusingly, at the time of the Crimean War, Authority suddenly discovered that it could no longer raise large numbers of men from the Highlands for the army. Even those that remained saw no reason why they should serve a society that had betrayed them.
Only one man was recruited. Believe it or not, no sooner was he away than the Duke's agents evicted his family from their dwelling! You really could not make stuff like this up. Jul 22, Dawn Dorsey rated it really liked it Shelves: history. This is a thorough history of a little-known chapter of Scottish history, covering the sixty-year period when the clansmen were evicted by the thousands from their ancestral lands in the Scottish Highlands and Islands, to make room for the more lucrative pasturage of sheep for lowland farmers. Following the bloody defeat of the highland army at Culloden in , the English crushed highland society and seized the property of the rebellious Chiefs.
When their lands and titles were restored forty This is a thorough history of a little-known chapter of Scottish history, covering the sixty-year period when the clansmen were evicted by the thousands from their ancestral lands in the Scottish Highlands and Islands, to make room for the more lucrative pasturage of sheep for lowland farmers. When their lands and titles were restored forty hears later, most of the Chiefs had been educated and living in England, or sold their estates to wealthy English merchants and farmers, so the ancient link between laird and tenant as kin was broken.
The clansman's value as a fighting man at his chief's beck and call was lost with the defeat of Scotland and destruction of her culture, and the anglicized lairds no longer felt the paternal obligation of protecting their children. They just wanted the easy income of sheep tenants, and not the responsibility for tenants who were no longer useful to them, but could be a liability to them should they lose all their means of work and become paupers on the estate.
While some clung to ever-shrinking and moving plots on the seacoast of their homeland, and others enlisted or were forced into the British Army, where they were often ordered to enforce more evictions against their own people, most of the evicted, burned-out tenants emigrated, sometimes bound and physically thrown onto ships more crowded and filthy that slave ships leaving Africa, which were better regulated as to space, food, and potable water for the passengers.
These emigrants were sent to British North America and Australia, where those who survived disease and shipwreck tried to establish new lives and communities in the wild new lands. That so many succeeded is a testament to their strength and resourcefulness, but not to any assistance from the hereditary chiefs who were legally responsible for their welfare but who all too often betrayed their people and reneged on their promises to assist passage and give them lands in the new territories. The romantic fiction of happy clansmen eager to emigrate with the benevolent assistance of their altruistic gentry is as much an invention of later writers as were the contemporary accounts of lazy highlanders unwilling to labor to support themselves and their families.
In fact, the people had been cleared to make room for sheep, to smaller plots on less arable land, if they were given anywhere to live at all, and repeated crop failures, or shipments of grain to the more profitable London markets, brought on mass famine, starvation, and destitution.
This books tells the sad history of the displaced population of one section of conquered Scotland, and explains the current diaspora of Scots existing today, and the nostalgia for a mythical utopia that never really existed except in the songs of the bards, the novels of great writers like Sir Walter Scott, and Victorian memories. View 1 comment.
Cumberland’s Culloden Army 1745–46
Jan 19, Rena rated it it was amazing. The first pages are a little dense on the financial reasons why the highlands were cleared. But you do need to know the bottom-line, monetary motivation of the land owners to make you truly appreciate the horror of people getting forced off their land to be replaced by sheep. Feb 27, Rosalind added it Shelves: non-fiction , history , scotland. By those standards the elimination of thousands of Gaelic speaking Highlanders from their homes in Scotland's northernmost counties may not strictly be genocide.
It certainly fits the definition of "ethnic cleansing" as practiced in the Yugoslav wars and elsewhere. To the English, the Lowland Scots, even the clan chiefs the Highlanders had looked to as fathers for generations, now growing accustomed to the sophisticated ways of Edinburgh and London, the Gaels were an embarrassment, less than human and squatting in the way of profit.
The hardy Cheviot sheep was found to be well-suited to the harsh climate and terrain, lucrative in mutton and wool, and worth rich rents from southern would-be sheep ranchers who didn't need peasants getting in the way. The people had to go. John Prebble's account of the brutal removal of the Highlanders, first to barren, boggy coastal plots to gather seaweed and ultimately to be crammed into unhealthy and often unseaworthy ships bound for the colonies is chilling.
Though there was stiff resistance to the removals, the agents of the Lairds enforced the writs as they had once raised armies: by tearing down the houses and burning them if the people didn't cooperate and often by burning or grubbing-up crops in the fields. Even the potato famine of the s, which hit the Highlands just as hard as it hit Ireland, brought scant pity and was used as an extra excuse to cleanse the land.
The Highlanders could drown or die of smallpox or starvation before they reached Canada or Australia, so long as they were out of the way. Even if they made it to the new lands, there was nothing there waiting for them so they had to start from scratch or perish. And it was all done in the name of "Improvement". All this happening just as, down in London, a hubristic Britain was showing off its industrial might to the world at the Crystal Palace Great Exhibition.
The Clearances are a hidden shame; not much taught in our schools I fear. This is angry stuff, and so it should be. Jul 31, Froggles rated it did not like it. Descredited bunk, written at a time when the serious study of Scottish history was in its infancy, by an Englishman who was not an historian, but a member of the Communist Party, with a political agenda.
If you really want to know what happened, read Sir T. Jan 17, Marguerite Kaye rated it liked it. I didn't give this the 4 stars it deserves as a history because it's not an easy read. It's case-based, but very dense, and though personal and emotive, I found it very hard to read in more than very short bursts. I bought it for research purposes and it certainly did the job on that - lots of meat on the causes and effects of the Clearances, and enough context to give you a good head start on such a difficult subject. I wasn't reading this to get a fuller understanding of the Clearances as a hi I didn't give this the 4 stars it deserves as a history because it's not an easy read.
I wasn't reading this to get a fuller understanding of the Clearances as a historian, and if I had been, I suspect I would have found it flawed - dated but also rather biased. But then, you expect that from Prebble. View 2 comments. Apr 25, Lynn rated it it was ok Shelves: non-fiction , history-scottish. The author's case-by-case recounting of this tragic episode in Scotland's history was informative, and his sources are good, but I felt his tone was more that of a novelist than an historian.
There is very little attempt at objectivity or finding truth that might not always jive with popular perception. There are much better books on this topic. Nov 05, Richard Thomas rated it it was amazing Shelves: scottish-history. It's a harrowing story of aristocratic arrogance clearing people off land they had held for centuries for sheep.
The clearances broke the bond of mutual obligation that had held highland society together and still scar today. Prebble's sympathies are obvious and shared by this writer. Oct 08, Lisa rated it it was amazing. An excellent book on the subject. I have read and re-read his books and own most of them. Interesting and readable, you don't want to put his books down. Mar 03, Culdares rated it it was ok. I started reading enthusiastically, willing to learn which I have and buoyed by the Author's engaging writing style, however as the book progressed a common theme emerged: he increasingly offered his own view on how the Highlanders should feel towards their Chiefs.
When mentioning the lack of hostility towards them by their clansmen he, years after the events, offered his judgements that the Chiefs do not deserve the love of their people. With these personal comments made so long after I started reading enthusiastically, willing to learn which I have and buoyed by the Author's engaging writing style, however as the book progressed a common theme emerged: he increasingly offered his own view on how the Highlanders should feel towards their Chiefs.
With these personal comments made so long after the events one can extrapolate a larger view, that his writing reflecting is own bias; he is a Toff basher!
My opinion is justified yet further in that of the many thousands of people cleared, he mentions only limited examples of brutality, mostly in only a handful of areas and by only a few named perpetrators and quotes from limited sources. His lens is a negative one and he has only gravitated to material which suits his bias.
Even when he mentions examples of Lairds helping their people, he does it begrudgingly, briefly and usually to summarise that it were not enough help, in his opinion. There is no doubt that there were unacceptable examples of brutality and hardship inflicted on a few belligerent Highland communities, but in context of the times, probably more acceptable levels than when the book was written.